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Abalone

Abalone
11 April
2019

Abalone este o specie de melc marin, din grupa molustelor (specia cea mai apreciata pentru colorit este Haliotis iris), de la care se consuma carnea, cosiderata delicatesa, iar carapacea este extrem de decorativa, apreciata de-a lungul timpului inca de acum 100 000 de ani, fiind gasite obiecte in urma sapaturilor arheologice.

Scoica abalone sau scoica paua (denumire mai des intalnita in Noua Zeelanda) este oval-convexa si prezinta un rand de orificii pe o singura latura, care deservesc functia respiratorie a melcului. Prin acele orificii, melcul abalone elimina apa din branhii, dar si sperma si ovulele. Melcul abalone variaza ca dimensiune de la 20 mm pana la 200 mm; ajunge la maturitate la o dimensiune relativ mica. Majoritatea speciilor de abalone traiesc in apele reci ale Japoniei, Africii de Sud, Australiei, Noii Zeelande si coasta de vest a Americii de Nord. Se hraneste cu alge.

Numarul de orificii din carapace pleaca de la 8 si poate ajunge la 38 pe masura ce melcul abalone creste, insa nu toate orificiile sunt perforate in intregime; ele se obtureaza in timp. Melcul abalone nu prezinta opercul, fiind protejat doar la partea superioara de carapace.

Scoica abalone este foarte neatragatoare pe partea convexa; culoarea variaza intre speciile aceluiasi gen si poate fi un indicator al alimentatiei melcului.

Interiorul iridescent al scoicii variaza de la alb cu irizatii argintii, catre nuante de roz si albastru-turcoaz.

Scoica abalone este o scoica tare, rezistenta datorita dispunerii precum caramizile a microparticulelor de carbonat de calciu din care este alcatuita, care sunt unite intre ele de o substanta proteica ce actioneaza ca un adeziv, preia socul si nu permite ca particulele sa se atinga intre ele, oferind astfel rezistenta la spargere.

Abalone a devenit specie de crescatorie intre anii 1950-’60 in China si Japonia, extinzandu-se catre Taiwan si Coreea iar mai apoi in Australia, Canada, Chile, Franta, Islanda, Irlanda, Mexic, Noua Zeelanda, Africa de Sud, Spania, Tailanda si SUA. Pescuitul excesiv dar si daunatorii naturali au determinat restrangerea populatiilor de abalone, in prezent, pentru consum, crescatoriile asigurand tot necesarul de consum.

Carnea de abalone este considerate delicatesa, mai ales in Chile, Franta, Noua Zeelanda si Asia de Est si Sud-Est.

Triburile de indigeni din Africa si din vestul Americii de Nord consumau carnea de abalone, iar caparacea o foloseau ca moneda de schimb.

Cochilia de abalone este folosita ca sursa de sidef (mother of pearl) pentru bijuterii, margele, obiecte decorative, mozaic.

Carapacea in sine este deosebit de decorativa, fiind folosita chiar si ca suport pentru arderea de tamaie si betigase parfumate.

Perlele de abalone sunt foarte appreciate in Noua Zeelanda si Australia, iar valoarea lor nu se judeca dupa perfectiunea rotunzimii spre deosebire de perlele naturale orientale, perlele de Akoya si perlele de cultura din Tahiti.

Pentru a produce perle de paua, melcii sunt luati din salbaticie la dimensiunea permisa de lege de 12,5 cm, li se fac implanturi de cochilie sau plastic prin perforarea carapacei sau lipire (forma implantului va determina forma perlei). Dupa efectuarea acestui implant, melcii sunt tinuti in tancurile de crescatorie intre 2 si 3 ani, timp in care carapacea lor lucreaza sa acopere acel implant cu tesut nou. Dupa 2-3 ani, timp in care abalone a ajuns la dimensiunea de recoltat, melcii sunt scosi din tancuri, carnea trece la procesare, perlele formate pot fi “culese”. Calitatea si marimea perlelor de paua sunt determinate de marimea melcului. Sunt preferati melcii din salbaticie deoarece produc perle mai mari decat cei din crescatorie. De asemenea, conditiile defectuoase de crescatorie pot influenta negativ marimea perlelor.

Particulele de praf de scoica de abalone care rezulta din taierea si slefuirea scoicilor sunt periculoase pentru sanatate si trebuie evitata inhalarea lor.

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